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The contribution of water in the formation of caves (speleogenesis): The creation of karst caves is the result of the long-lasting action of water on limestone rocks. This effect is both chemical and mechanical and results in the erosion of limestone formations and the creation of cavities in them. Limestone rocks cover a big surface of the earth’s ground and are very common in Greece. Their main component is the carbonic calcium which is almost insoluble in pure water. Rain water however, enriched with carbon dioxide that is absorbed from the air and from organic elements found in the soil, acquires the attributes of weak acid. In this way, it can chemically dissolve limestone rocks, penetrating through already existing cracks. These cracks increase in size through time and form gradually an underground system of canals but also a very particular landscape in the surface which is called “Karst”. Caves are among the most famous underground karst formations.

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